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boys for vocations other than the professions. Francke had in-
cluded various modern subjects in the curriculum of his Latin
schools as " recreations." Johann Julius Hecker (1707-1768), a
student of Francke's and a teacher in the Pcedagogium in Halle for
six years, carried Francke's idea still further, and established a
school in Berlin in 1747, with practical subjects as the central
interest. This school was the progenitor of the whole system of
Realschulen and Continuation Schools in Germany.


The part played by France in the re-shaping of the educational
institutions of Europe in the Eighteenth Century was quite in-
significant. But she more than made up for her shortcomings in
practical reform by her epoch-making contributions in the sphere
of theory. It is scarcely an exaggeration to say that the funda-
mental ideas which have dominated all recent developments of
education were struck out in the fervent welter of French life
which gave the democratic ideal to humanity in the course of the
century. The one exception is the principle of State supremacy in
education, which was the invention of the German people ; and
even that is not a real exception, since it was not till the principle
had been formulated and generalized in France that it attained
full significance for Germany and the modern world.

At the beginning of the century nothing could have seemed
more unlikely than the genesis of new ideals of life and education
from the soil of France. The country was then in very complete
subjection to Louis XIV. In the course of a long reign he had
succeeded in bringing the whole nation under the control of the
Crown and its agents, and had crushed out independence of
thought and action not merely in politics, but in religion and litera-
ture. Even the great nobles and churchmen, who in earlier reigns
had exercised the same tyrannical rule on a smaller scale, had
their power broken. But those who suffered most were the middle
and lower classes, who were subordinate to the Court and the
nobles and the churchmen. The middle classes, to which for the
most part the merchants and the men of letters belonged, had their
liberty checked in various ways, and notably in freedom of speech:
scarcely a single outstanding man among the writers in the first